Corridor 4 connects the Russian Federation with East Asia, more specifically with Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Mongolia, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in People’s Republic of China.
o Corridor 4a connects the city of Urumqi in North-West of China with the Russian Federation via West Mongolia. The border crossing points are Takeshikent (China) – Yarant (Mongolia), then crossing the Mongolian towns of Olgii and Hovd. The access to the Russian Federation is made through the points Ulaanbaishint (Mongolia) – Tashanta (Russian Federation).
o Corridor 4b represents the most important trade route for Mongolia, especially for the goods coming from the Russian Federation that have East Asian markets as destination. The corridor crosses Eastern Mongolia, passing through important cities such as Khiagt (Russian Federation) – Altanbulag (Mongolia) to the north and Zamiin-Uud (Mongolia) – Erenhot (China) to the south. Most Mongolian exports have Japan and the Republic of Korea as destination, and the Erenhot-Jining-Tianjin route, which is about 980 km long, with access to Xingang Harbor, offers a direct route.
o Corridor 4c has the shortest route, extending from the Russian border Naushki to Sukhbaatar and Bichigt (both in Mongolia), and being an extension of the two main corridors mentioned above.
Source: CAREC Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy 2020 pp. 48
Corridor 4 includes 2,400 km of roads and 1,100 km of railways; the eastern section of the corridor is separated from the other CAREC corridors. The existence of a trade imbalance between Mongolia and its neighbours, China and the Russian Federation, represented the premise for the construction of these transport routes that will contribute to the development of Mongolia and will reduce regional disparities. The number of connected inhabitants is not as large as in the case of other corridors, as Mongolia itself is not a country with a high population density, but the importance of this corridor derives from the link it creates with important economic centres. The main goods transported on this corridor are: zinc cathodes, copper cathodes, a large number of minerals, but also food.
Being the smallest corridor, whose surface unfolds mostly in Mongolia, all the projects are concentrated in this country and include: road reconstruction, construction of a new airport in the Mongolian capital, and investment in improving rail transport. Six of them have already been implemented and aimed the improvement of road infrastructure:
- Improvement of 5 kilometres in 10 locations of local-access and soum-center roads;
- Improvement of 2 km Yarant–Hovd city road;
- Expansion of highway capacity by upgrading or constructing about 177 km of the Hailar-Manzhouli Highway (Inner Mongolia, China), plus upgrading and rehabilitation of about 413 km o f the highway network;
- 428 km of asphalt concrete road between Choyr (Mongolia) and the PRC border in Zamyn-Uud;
- Reconstruction of about 215 kilometers of the paved roads between Erdenesant (Mongolia) and Arvaikheer (Mongolia);
- Reconstruction and improvement of all-weather gravel surface of about 86 km of the earth road between Kharkhorin and Tosontsengel; reconstruction and improvement of all-weather gravel surface of about 93 km of the earth road between Arvaikheer and Khovd (Mongolia);
The ongoing project includes a multimodal logistic centre at Zamyn Uud (Mongolia).
The total cost of the projects is over USD 600 million, and the financiers are: Asian Development Bank, World Bank, Government of the Republic of Korea, Nordic Development Fund, Government of Mongolia, Government of the People’s Republic of China.
- Asian Development Bank (2014). CAREC Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy 2020, 23, 47 – 48
- Asian Development Bank (2014). Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Corridor Performance Measurement and Monitoring. A Forward-Looking Retrospective, pp. 7, 10, 66-67